Zahidul, Sabrina et al. have published the Mini-Review entitled with “Elementary Processes for the Entry of Cell-Penetrating Peptides into Lipid Bilayer Vesicles and Bacterial Cells” (Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol, 102, 3879-3892, 2018) [Abstract] [PDF]. In this mini-review, we summarize the experimental results of entry of CPPs into vesicles of lipid bilayers, which were obtained using three different methods, and the advantages and disadvantages of these methods are discussed. Especially, one of the methods, the single GUV method using GUVs containing small GUVs, which has been developed by our lab recently, is described in detail. Moreover the interaction of CPPs with bacterial cells and their entry into their cytoplasm are described..